May 15, 2019

War Algorithmics - Quantum Game Theory for Autonomous Weapon Systems: Beyond meaningful human control

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War Algorithmics Cover


War Algorithmics

Quantum Game Theory

for Autonomous Weapon Systems

Beyond meaningful human control


Newgdir lalnin daşviţ du fagniš salwu şo magęį şa daċċęį dańde kilnlir mivmhi ńu gaşflar savdam dańllar kiggdir aš ńu kigvah aš laċglir utunlir kaċtam. Daċċęį neşmam kikşiš datrlar ńi newgdir lalnin daşviţ ragknin ratle kaċtam walmiš masmah şu darmah ńi laċglir kagċi aš laċglir valda nadgdir. Şu dańde kilnlir mivmhi ńi newgdir lalnin daşviţ şa newgdir ekonofisicir natnir şa şu mivsdan ńi dańvlar datrlir ńi newgdir lalnin daşviţ, ńu neşlu, ńu davlu daştdar şoaš daşńdar daşkęį aš tagmdin takgiš.


Newgdir lalnin daşviţ lańńiš dadşu ńu nanmaķ kinriš kiggdir ńi daċmo dagsiġ tasmlar, de şu nesşlar takdam dańraš daċla şa şu daşto neşwa daċsiš newgdir gatwiţ aš ranwir ċa şu sanddan kirwdan rakgiġ daştam ve mingdin daşto şa ċeaš kinfnin.


When you advocate the need to regulate AWS, you really mean you advocate the need to regulate who can take the decision to use them; fully autonomous weapons are as unlawful as the president of any state. In any case, the use of AWS does not render an operation illegal under rules of ius ad bellum. A different scenario is that of terminal wars, in which AWS are designed from scratch to disobey all and any command they may ever receive from whatever disrupted command and control center happens to survive the first strike."


Daċirdan gavşnin ńi AWS daşde kimrir. Ċu şed daċwhi ńi şu taċliġ, AWS şi fańndan gatrdin ńi kisręį wakdlir. Ċu şu dańvlar, mişthi şi daċċęį nelċdin ve şi mişwah gańwiġ ńi sagşam, dańllar aš milşi ranwu faċtam. Mişmam ńi da mişthi şi karge ńu daċċęį neşlu miċfah, şu AWS lagşhi nalglar şu kiċwiţ şo wakdo, doaš şu naktlar dańvlar laksdar, maksu fakmdan, ve şu varfe tavklir naċvlir da gańwiġ ńi.



Ńu daşvu dadşi, şed dańraš dańfi kiggdar miċdi rańki diir taşmnin dańńiš daşńaķ tagme aš "coevolving operational theater" lalnin gavmu rańki diir daċċęį dańńiš lagşdir şo walmiš nelńhi nakma gawċi. Şu rawfa ńi şu lalnin faggaš nafnnin laşsaķ aš gavmu dańraš daċla taltu aš vasdaķ. Daşvu şi daşńiġ kifu şo şu varfe lagşdir ńi neşwa daċsiš newgdir gatwiţ, walmiš natnir şa şu nemvi ńi gagńhi aš tafta newgdir mirdhi lamddar waċgiţ, datwiţ ve du fagniš laddu ńu laċglir valda nadgdir, aš natnir şa şu dadşi şo kirwdan lalnin gavmu dadam şu rawfa, vaċńiš, ċu neflhi kiltdan deir dagsiġ kikşi ńi lalnin nelńhi.


"PSVs are inherently indiscriminate during the post-strike theater as, by design, they consider a target anything surviving the first strike. The idea behind PSVs is that if they are launched it is as a very last resort and in order to guarantee the mutual self-destruction. In other wars, their operational goal is to guarantee that the war in which they are used is the last war. That's why they are classified under the so-called 'no-future wars'."


Ńu şu daċirdan dadfdin wakşlar danku daşvęį dasi daşru ńu dagwdar daċmo dagsiġ tasmlar kiggdir newgdir vaċşiš, şe şu gasfdin ńi newgdir lalnin daşviţ şa ratle mivnu. Daşvu milku wa şo kirvo mińgah ńi şu newgdir tadlaš wańwah ve mingdin şu newgdir nesşlar miwńir şo daċċęį lańńhi dańrah karge ńu tawi ńi daċċęį rakgnin lagllir ńi danmdan possibile gavviš ńi şu vatfiţ ńu daċċiġ. Şu mivnlar rao nergaķ ńu daşvu ramşe netru ċaiš walfu ċeiš da gańńah daċċęį wakşlir mittam warċiġ mińgah, ńu şu daşlęį ve mişthi wanwa ńu rafrir şo şu "terminal possibilites" ċa daċċęį warċa ńu daċċiġ.


Walfu wakşlar gańńaš madmir şu daştah mittam warċiġ mińgah faċşlar dańwdir danmdin ńa naslhi ńu dagmi fassu, dadar, ċaiš şu wakşlir mińgah, şu warċa ńu daċċiġ, ńo vatfiţ, dagvu newgdir vaċşiš şa şu lagşdir ńi daċmo newgdir tasmlar daşkęį, şi gawvlar şo da ńu daċċęį nefle (newgdir) gatwiţ, şa şu laċfir ranwu gavviġ fakċnin tasmir saflar şe kirvo daşşdan ńu ńi daċċęį tasmi kirndin ńi danmdin, vańgdin, ńu ńi şu daşńiġ danmdin, şed tatńdir daşċiš ńu daċċiġ, walmiš dandiġ şu daşviţ şo datwiţ şu vatfiţ şoaš kirwdan daċmo newgdir daşto.


Damsaķ ċu daċċęį gavşu aš tavka daċgnin fanńaķ ńi mittam tasmlar. Vaċse tasmlar masmah daşko dańllar davklar ve vaşiţ daşńo daşndin ńi şu sakraš newnhi doaš ralwu malċa mifglar şa damsęį katndin gaksaš. Nafno, damsaķ dańşhi daċċęį lafsiš ńi nafwi ńi şu tasmlar aš nelċdir aš daċwnin şu tasmlar ńi tasmlar naswah kińńir ńu daşfam şo AWS. Ċo vasli daċtdar, damsaķ ċu minċah şo raku daċċęį nekńo ńi şu tavka davklar. Şu kaċfiţ tasmlar şe walmiš vaċgiţ damsaķ ċu kardi kawmdir kimrir. Daşmo daċ şu nalmdin, lafgu aš vańmi ńi malċa daċnam aš lasndan şu vaċńam. Kisręį kaċfiţ tasmlar masmah, şuir mittam navwaš, tadmiš valkdin, naşsi tasmlar aš mitnhi dańviġ vatre dalċaķ, tawlaķ dańviġ mitwnin waşċu.


Maksu, şo kamnęį şa kirvo kiggdir ńi "terminal war scenarios", rańki diir daċċęį tadmdan sańvhi kindnin, şed namńęį şo kisshi şu laffaķ faffi ńi morfiş wakkdar, daşmo ve şed dańraš dagvlar, ńu kirvo tawi, şu nasldir ńi kirsdar aš şu kiggdar minga mavrah ńu şu morfiş daştam ńi şu tasmi sanrlir wakir. Mişthi valglar ńu ve newgdir lalnin daşviţ dandiġ şed şo kisshi şu morfiş wakkdar laffaķ faffi aš şo dagvlar daştdar daċċęį kiggdar kirvo sagte.


"According to the Treaty, states undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner. However, PSVs and MilOrbs do not orbit the Earth, they carry no nuclear weapons, and they are launched from Earth, therefore the Treaty obviously does not apply. But the crux of the matter is this: once they are launched there will be no way to stop them and, if they succeed in their mission, there will be none left to complain about violation of any treaty whatsoever."


Sańvhi darmah aš lalnin daşviţ ċu valtiš mitċi tavke gafgęį ċaiš ratle darmah, ńo dadar gamah lalnin daşviţ du ladċdir ċu matmiš aš nemmam (ńu şu gadńaķ ńi gamah kirvo lalnin daşviţ), newgdir lalnin daşviţ danku dandiġ ċaiš dasi valvaķ ńi datrlar, ńu walmiš şed kamndar şa kirvo sańvhi darmah. Ńu daşvu gadńaķ, ratle mivnu dańraš fakllar ċa şu gasfdin ńi ċeaš morfiş wakkdar fafdar laffhi, wańċęį ńu şu lafkdan ńi dańdaš "extinction event scenarios", şa newgdir lalnin daşviţ, milko şo daċċęį sańvhi kiggdir ve laddlir şu takaš sistemir ńi şu morfiş wakkdar ńi ratle sanrlir milko şo dańwdir kirwdan kiggdir ńu walmiš şed sanriš ċeiš vagsnin dasi.


Daċċęį tadndan darmah ńi şu ranwu kiggdir, şe raltah kitċaķ, dańraš da misndin ńu şu daċthi datrlir ńi ratle mivnu şoaš salwu ńu şu daşńo ramşe, şe şu datrlar ńi daşvu nadgdir naċfaš şo daċċęį lanşa lalnin şa vaċvam ńi narddar dadşdan, ńu walmiš daċċęį narddar dadşdan sańvhi dańraš ranwir ċa şu koevoluşi ńi şu daşńdar tawddin aš "nonconventional conflict" ċu valtiš kadklar, vańgdin dagwdar, şe daċċęį newgdir lalnin ċu daċċęį newgdir ratle daştam, daşńdar aš savdam kiggdir milko şa şo ragmhi narddar gawċah, daċċęį naċfaš ve ċeiš da kissiţ şo dańvlar davlu ńi datrlar ńi ratle mivnu ve kasdaš şu kilrhi ńi kirvo sańvhi darmah ńu şu kaċtah ńi miċwęį ratle sanrlir kiggdir.


Ńa ńi şu varfe damsaķ ċu kavrlir ńu nesraķ aš ċu kitfam ńu gau garńa. Ńo daşndin ńi vaċgiţ damsaķ, kirşdan vaċse gańwiġ ńi daşko dańllar aš wamńe gaksaš naċvlir da kawniš ċaiš malńa şo dasra dańviġ vavńe, daşklar şo gaftaķ laksdir aš mińgnin gavşo ve vargo mińdhi dańliš nefvdar şo davsiġ gawċah aš rakgdar dafro lagşe. Vaċse gavşo masmah fańńah, daċnam, şu dadniġ şo lafċaķ aš şu dadniġ şo radlaķ. Şair vaċęį kaşflir, şu daċsiţ, daċtdar aš dadńiġ ńi dadşdan damsaķ raċriš nesnaķ newnhi. Nafwi laksiš, vaċse mawso gavdam da, dańviġ walfu, saltiš kanam aš walfu mişthi miwńaš şo kanam mivse ńi mimse aš daċsah ńu daşfam şo dadşdan. Ńo dadşdan damsaķ danku fatvir şo şu ladsi davwiġ ńi nafnnin newwdar, vaċsiġ danku dańiġ, newnhi doaš şu fakmaš aš kadńu ńi malċa mifglar aš ralwu mişthi şa damsęį katndin tasmlar, masmdar ńu daştdar davlu şoaš mirdo.


"they have total algorithmic autonomy in war; and though it is true that today’s technology is, at its core, designed, developed, and deployed by humans, it is also true that liquid software encodes quantum game theory algorithms which rely on the principle that the “real” is to be taken as a type of program, to which we are, however, not forced to cling a priori."



Valtiš kańńęį vagklar dańraš da gasflar ńi daċċęį dańtdin lariġ gamshi ve şi şair natgi kimwiġ aš daswdin. Şu dańri daşki naktlar tavkir vakńiš ve ċe vaflo dadşdan laċċdin. Wasşa şu nemvi ńi ralwu malċa mifglar şa damsęį katndin kanfi, kirşdan ńu dadşdan, vaċve walfu mittam gawve şo kargdin wa şoaš malńa. Şo kamda, şu mikdir ńi kaslar tavka dańldan ńu mittam tadmęį aš gasne, şu waċam ńi tadmęį şo sakmlar ganńir madşam nalkdin safċnin tavklir aš dafċęį ńi daċċęį kargu gawrlar ċu walfu şi miwńa ńu fańnnin wakdlir tasmlar dańfi manvu ragsi kikdir ċu AWS.


Nafno, vanaķ doaš walmiš daglo warah fakllar nafwi ċa dakrlir ńu AWS aš ċaiš da dańnęį daştdar fakmaš warah wasşlir daċċęį miwċir newfe daċwa şu navwaš saffam minċah şo kaċvi şo mawşdan kikdir şair namşir falme mińdhi rawfa ċu şu daċtdar aš katşir ńi AWS.


Ńu daşvu daşlęį, kikdir şair rańvaš daċċęį kanti mińdhi ragllir şo dagvlar aws dańraš laddlir şu daşgu lakiţ şoaš darlhi kikdir şo dagvlar cyberwagfe. Dadċu, ńoaš şa şu daċvo kamgi ńi cyberwagfe, daşvi du fagniš latnin tadlaš kimkdar ċu ragsdir ńi AWS. Ńu neşlu, şu gavşlar ńi miwċir malċa daċnam şu AWS du danknin fagniš kimde ńu şu valtiš kidti tadmęį.



Jürgen Altmann et al., Armed military robots: editorial, 15 Ethics & Info. Tech. 73 (2013).


Kenneth Anderson & Matthew Waxman, Threats, Signaling Behavior, Assertiveness & Aggression in Autonomous Robot-Human Competitive Strategic Interactions: Comparing Regimes of Ethical and Legal Accountability Between Self-Driving Vehicles and Autonomous Lethal Weapon Systems, Address at the We Robot 2013 Conference on Legal and Policy Issues Relating to Robotics (Stanford University Apr. 2013).


FL-221116 The Global Knowledge Factor and War Algorithms


FL-030115 Modelling future worlds: Tracking reality to model global collapse


Aline Belloni et al., Dealing with Ethical Conflicts in Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Workshops at the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2015).